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What are the structure of LCD panel

Time : 2021-10-14 14:11:26 Popularity : 164

The structure of LCD panel is mainly composed of polarizing plate, glass substrate, color filter, alignment film, liquid crystal material, optical diaphragm, driving circuit, shell and other components.

As shown below:


1. Glass substrate

Glass substrate is a kind of thin glass sheet with extremely flat surface. A layer of In2O3 or SnO2 transparent conductive layer, i.e. ITO film, is evaporated on the surface, and the transparent conductive pattern is made by photolithography. These figures are composed of the smallest image unit that constitutes all the brightness and chroma of an image. Pixel graphics and leader graphics. Therefore, the external lead can not be connected by traditional tin welding, but can only be connected by conductive rubber strip or conductive tape. If it is scratched, cut or corroded, the device will be scrapped.

2. Color filter

The reason why the LCD panel can display color is that light passes through the color filter. The liquid crystal panel changes the voltage of the driving chip to make the liquid crystal molecules stand or twist in rows, forming a gate to select whether the backlight light penetrates or not, so as to produce a picture. However, there is only a difference in light transmission, and the resulting colors are only black and white. To form a color picture, we need to rely on the combination of red, green and blue light sources.

3. Alignment membrane

Alignment layer is the key material to control LCD display quality. In order to achieve good rotation effect of LCD material, alignment film needs to be coated on the inner side of upper and lower electrode substrates of LCD display. After the alignment film is coated, the rubbing process is followed. The grooves arranged in a certain direction will be formed on the surface of the alignment film due to friction. The liquid crystal material on the alignment film will achieve the orientation effect due to the force between molecules, resulting in the alignment effect. In this way, the liquid crystal molecules can be controlled to be arranged in a specific direction and a predetermined tilt angle, which is conducive to the action of the LCD display screen.

4. Liquid crystal materials

Liquid crystal material is the main body of LCD display screen. The liquid crystal materials used in different devices are different. Most of the liquid crystal materials are mixed by several or even more than a dozen kinds of monomer liquid crystal materials. Each liquid crystal material has its own fixed clear point TL and crystallization point ts. Therefore, each LCD display must be used and stored in a certain temperature range between ts and TL. if the use or storage temperature is too low, the crystallization will damage the orientation layer of the LCD display; If the temperature is too high, the liquid crystal will lose its liquid crystal state, which will lose the function of LCD display.

5. Polarizer

The main purpose of the polarizer is to polarize the light passing through the dichroic medium of the polarizing film. The polarizer is made of plastic film material and coated with a layer of optical pressure-sensitive adhesive, which can be attached to the surface of the liquid crystal cell. At present, most polarizers commonly used in LCD display screen use polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as substrate. There is also a protective film on the surface of the front polarizer, which should be removed during use. The polarizer is afraid of high temperature and high humidity, which will depolarize or blister under high temperature and high humidity conditions.

6. Drive circuit

The function of the driving circuit is to establish certain driving conditions by adjusting a series of parameters applied to the pixel electrode, such as voltage, phase, frequency, peak value, effective value, timing, duty cycle and so on.

Title:What are the structure of LCD panel
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